All too often, I think, fitness books claims have nothing to back them up. I've tried to make my book research-based: behind each key suggestion I make, whether regarding exercise or nutrition, is one or more citations referencing relevant scientific research articles.  (See this same list alphabetically here.)


Little JP, Safdar A, Benton CR, Wright DC. Skeletal muscle and beyond: the role of exercise as a mediator of systemic mitochondrial biogenesis. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Oct;36(5):598-607


Pigozzi F, Rizzo M, Giombini A, Parisi A, Fagnani F, Borrione P. Bone mineral density and sport: effect of physical activity. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2009 Jun;49(2):177-8


Leung FP, Yung LM, Laher I, Yao X, Chen ZY, Huang Y. Exercise, vascular wall and cardiovascular diseases: an update (Part 1). Sports Med. 2008;38(12):1009-24


Langberg H, Skovgaard D, Petersen LJ, Bulow J, Kjaer M. Type I collagen synthesis and degradation in peritendinous tissue after exercise determined by microdialysis in humans. J Physiol. 1999 Nov 15;521 Pt 1:299-306


Alves CR, Tessaro VH, Teixeira LA, Murakava K, Roschel H, Gualano B, Takito MY. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. Percept Mot Skills. 2014 Feb;118(1):63-72


Hughes JR. Psychological effects of habitual aerobic exercise: a critical review. Prev Med. 1984 Jan;13(1):66-78


Kovács E, Sztruhár Jónásné I, Karóczi CK, Korpos A, Gondos T. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on balance, functional mobility and fall risk in older adults with cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled single-blind study. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2013 Oct;49(5):639--48


Gremeaux V, Gayda M, Lepers R, Sosner P, Juneau M, Nigam A. Exercise and longevity. Maturitas. 2012 Dec;73(4):312-7


Alter DA, Wijeysundera HC, Franklin B, Austin PC, Chong A, Oh PI, Tu JV, Stukel TA. Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Aug 4;12:238


Sobngwi E, Mbanya JC, Unwin NC, Kengne AP, Fezeu L, Minkoulou EM, Aspray TJ, Alberti KG. Physical activity and its relationship with obesity, hypertension and diabetes in urban and rural Cameroon. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Jul;26(7):1009-16


Kartono A. Modified minimal model for effect of physical exercise on insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness in type 2 diabetes and healthy human. Theory Biosci. 2013 Sep;132(3):195-206


Willis FB, Smith FM, Willis AP. Frequency of exercise for body fat loss: a controlled, cohort study. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Nov;23(8):2377-80


American Academy of Family Physicians.  The exercise habit.  Created January, 1996, updated December, 2009


National Center for Health Statistics, press release April 6, 2010


Health and Social Care Information Centre.  Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England, January 2008. 


International Health, Racquet, and Sportsclub Association, press release March 31, 2010,


Willardson JM. The effectiveness of resistance exercises performed on unstable equipment.  Strength and Conditioning Journal,  2004;5:70-74


Pollock ML, Gettman LR, Milesis CA, Bah MD, Durstine L, Johnson RB.  Effect of frequency and duration of training on attrition and incidence of injury.  Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, 1977;9:31-36


Ballor DL, Keesey RE. A meta-analysis of the factors affecting exercise-induced changes in body mass, fat mass and fat-free mass in males and females. Int J Obes. 1991 Nov;15(11):717-26


Buchowski MS, Townsend KM, Chen KY, Acra SA, Sun M. Energy expenditure determined by self-reported physical activity is related to body fatness. Obes Res. 1999 Jan;7(1):23-33


Tremblay A, Despres JP, Bouchard C. The effects of exercise-training on energy balance and adipose tissue morphology and metabolism. Sports Med. 1985 May-Jun;2(3):223-33


LaMonte MJ, Durstine JL, Addy CL, Irwin ML, Ainsworth BE. Physical activity, physical fitness, and Framingham 10-year risk score: the cross-cultural activity participation study. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2001 Mar-Apr;21(2):63-70


Martinez DG, Nicolau JC, Lage RL, Toschi-Dias E, de Matos LD, Alves MJ, Trombetta IC, Dias da Silva VJ, Middlekauff HR, Negrăo CE, Rondon MU. Effects of long-term exercise training on autonomic control in myocardial infarction patients. Hypertension. 2011 Dec;58(6):1049-56


Downing J, Balady GJ. The role of exercise training in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Aug 2;58(6):561-9


Huebschmann AG, Kohrt WM, Regensteiner JG. Exercise attenuates the premature cardiovascular aging effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Vasc Med. 2011 Oct;16(5):378-90


Minor MA. Exercise in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1999 May;25(2):397-415, viii


Wolff E, Gaudlitz K, von Lindenberger BL, Plag J, Heinz A, Ströhle A. Exercise and physical activity in mental disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011 Nov;261 Suppl 2:S186-91


Allen J, Morelli V. Aging and exercise. Clin Geriatr Med. 2011 Nov;27(4):661-71


Carlisle D. Better than any drug. Nurs Stand. 2012 Jan 18-24;26(20):18-9.


Anderson JW, Konz EC, Frederich RC, Wood CL. Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74(5):579-84


Harvard Medical School, September, 2005. 


Kraemer WJ, Fleck SJ, Evans WJ. Strength and power training: physiological mechanisms of adaptation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1996;24:363-97


Sale DG. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988 Oct;20(5 Suppl):S135-45


Matoba H, Gollnick PD. Response of skeletal muscle to training. Sports Med. 1984 May-Jun;1(3):240-51


Expert panel: executive summary of the clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults.  Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1855-1867


Schjerve IE, Tyldum GA, Tjřnna AE, Střlen T, Loennechen JP, Hansen HE, Haram PM, Heinrich G, Bye A, Najjar SM, Smith GL, Slřrdahl SA, Kemi OJ, Wislřff U. Both aerobic endurance and strength training programmes improve cardiovascular health in obese adults. Clin Sci (Lond). 2008 Nov;115(9):283-93


Lexell J, Taylor CC. Variability in muscle fibre areas in whole human quadriceps muscle: effects of increasing age. J Anat. 1991 Feb;174:239-49


Klein CS, Rice CL, Marsh GD. Normalized force, activation, and coactivation in the arm muscles of young and old men. J Appl Physiol. 2001 Sep;91(3):1341-9


Pleis JR, Lucas JW. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2007. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10(240). 2009. 


Wang Z, Ying Z, Bosy-Westphal A, Zhang J, Heller M, Later W, Heymsfield SB, Müller MJ. Evaluation of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues: comparison between men and women. Am J Hum Biol. 2011 May-Jun;23(3):333-8


Wang Z, Heshka S, Gallagher D, Boozer CN, Kotler DP, Heymsfield SB. Resting energy expenditure-fat-free mass relationship: new insights provided by body composition modeling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep;279(3):E539-45


Withers RT, Sherman WM, Miller JM, Costill DL. Specificity of the anaerobic threshold in endurance trained cyclists and runners. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1981;47(1):93-104


Reilly T, Morris T, Whyte G. The specificity of training prescription and physiological assessment: a review. J Sports Sci. 2009 Apr;27(6):575-89


Folland JP, Williams AG. The adaptations to strength training: morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength. Sports Med. 2007;37(2):145-68


Daub WB, Green HJ, Houston ME, Thomson JA, Fraser IG, Ranney DA. Specificity of physiologic adaptations resulting from ice-hockey training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15(4):290-4


Gwinup G, Chelvam R, Steinberg T.  Thickness of subcutaneous fat and activity of underlying muscles.  Annals of Internal Medicine, 1971: 408-11


Vispute SS, Smith JD, Lecheminant JD, Hurley KS. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):2559-64


Augustsson J, Esko A, Thomee R, Svantesson U.  Weight training of the thigh muscles using closed vs. open chain exercises: a comparison of performance enhancement.  Journal of Orthopedic Sports Physical Therapy.  1998 Jan;27(1):3-8


Blackburn JR, Morrissey MC. The relationship between open and closed kinetic chain strength of the lower limb and jumping performance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998 Jun;27(6):430-5


Mazess RB.  On aging bone loss.  Clin Orthop. Clin Orthop. 1982 May;(165):239-52


World Health Organization, press release "Aging and Osteoporosis" April 7, 1999


Melton LJ 3rd. The prevalence of osteoporosis: gender and racial comparison. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001 Oct;69(4):179-81


González-Zabaleta J, Pita-Fernandez S, Seoane-Pillado T, López-Calvińo B, Gonzalez-Zabaleta JL. Comorbidity as a predictor of mortality and mobility after hip fracture. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015 May 15


Kemmler W, Lauber D, Weineck J, Hensen J, Kalender W, Engelke K. Benefits of 2 Years of Intense Exercise on Bone Density, Physical Fitness, and Blood Lipids in Early Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women: Results of the Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS). Arch Intern Med. 2004 May 24;164(10):1084-1091


Krolner B, Toft B.  Vertebral bone loss: an unheeded side effect of therapeutic bed rest.  Clinical Science (London).  1983 May;64(5):537-40


Issekutz B, Blizzrad JJ, Birkhead NC, Rodahl K.  Effect of prolonged bed rest on urinary calcium output.  J. Appl. Physiol.  1966;21(3):1013-1020


Skerry TM. The response of bone to mechanical loading and disuse: fundamental principles and influences on osteoblast/osteocyte homeostasis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008 May 15;473(2):117-23


Arkill KP, Winlove CP. Solute transport in the deep and calcified zones of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008 Jun;16(6):708-14; Quinn TM, Morel V, Meister JJ.  Static compression of articular cartilage can reduce solute diffusivity and partitioning: implications for the chondrocyte biological response. J Biomech. 2001 Nov;34(11):1463-9


Urban JP. The chondrocyte: a cell under pressure. The chondrocyte: a cell under pressure. Br J Rheumatol. 1994 Oct;33(10):901-8


Carter DR, Wong M. Modelling cartilage mechanobiology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003 Sep 29;358(1437):1461-71;  Saadat E, Lan H, Majumdar S, Rempel DM, King KB. Long-term cyclical in vivo loading increases cartilage proteoglycan content in a spatially specific manner: an infrared microspectroscopic imaging and polarized light microscopy study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8(5):R147


Eckstein F, Hudelmaier M, Putz R. The effects of exercise on human articular cartilage. J Anat. 2006 Apr;208(4):491-512; Carter DR, Beaupré GS, Wong M, Smith RL, Andriacchi TP, Schurman DJ. The mechanobiology of articular cartilage development and degeneration. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Oct;(427 Suppl):S69-77


Mcardle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Essentials of exercise physiology.  Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1994, p. 165


Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008 Jan;9(1):58-65


Pal S, Radavelli-Bagatini S, Ho S. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2013 Nov-Dec;7(6):494-506


Roberts CK, Hevener AL, Barnard RJ. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: underlying causes and modification by exercise training. Compr Physiol. 2013 Jan;3(1):1-58


Hoffman MD, Hoffman DR. Exercisers achieve greater acute exercise-induced mood enhancement than nonexercisers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Feb;89(2):358-63


Puterman E, O'Donovan A, Adler NE, Tomiyama AJ, Kemeny M, Wolkowitz OM, Epel E. Physical activity moderates effects of stressor-induced rumination on cortisol reactivity. Psychosom Med. 2011 Sep;73(7):604-11


Daniels J. Obesity: America's epidemic. Am J Nurs. 2006 Jan;106(1):40-9


Fields LE, Burt VL, Cutler JA, Hughes J, Roccella EJ, Sorlie P. The burden of adult hypertension in the United States 1999 to 2000: a rising tide. Hypertension. 2004 Oct;44(4):398-404


Tesauro M, Cardillo C. Obesity, blood vessels and metabolic syndrome. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Sep;203(1):279-86


Bogaert YE, Schrier RW. Into the future: prevention of diabetes. Contrib Nephrol. 2011;170:256-63


Roemmich JN, Lambiase MJ, Balantekin KN, Feda DM, Dorn J. Stress, behavior, and biology: risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in youth. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2014 Oct;42(4):145-52


Najafian J, Mohammadifard N, Naeini FF, Nouri F. Relation between usual daily walking time and metabolic syndrome. Niger Med J. 2014 Jan;55(1):29-33


Charansonney OL. Physical activity and aging: a life-long story. Discov Med. 2011 Sep;12(64):177-85


McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL.  Chapter 10, Energy expenditure during walking, jogging, running, and swimming, in Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance, 5 ed., Baltimore, Maryland: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, page 204


McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL.  Chapter 10, Energy expenditure during walking, jogging, running, and swimming, in Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance, 5 ed., Baltimore, Maryland: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, page 209


Wilkin LD, Cheryl A, Haddock BL. Energy expenditure comparison between walking and running in average fitness individuals. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Apr;26(4):1039-44


Cymet TC, Sinkov V. Does long-distance running cause osteoarthritis? J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2006 Jun;106(6):342-5


Walther M, Kirschner S. [Is running associated with premature degenerative arthritis of the hip? A systematic review] Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2004 Mar-Apr;142(2):213-20; Chakravarty EF, Hubert HB, Lingala VB, Zatarain E, Fries JF. Long distance running and knee osteoarthritis. A prospective study. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Aug;35(2):133-8


Bruce B, Fries JF, Lubeck DP. Aerobic exercise and its impact on musculoskeletal pain in older adults: a 14 year prospective, longitudinal study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7(6):R1263-70


Fries JF, Singh G, Morfeld D, O'Driscoll P, Hubert H.  Relationship of running to musculoskeletal pain with age. A six-year longitudinal study. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Jan;39(1):64-72


Rogers LQ, Macera CA, Hootman JM, Ainsworth BE, Blairi SN. The association between joint stress from physical activity and self-reported osteoarthritis: an analysis of the Cooper Clinic data. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002 Aug;10(8):617-22


Dunlop DD, Semanik P, Song J, Manheim LM, Shih V, Chang RW. Risk factors for functional decline in older adults with arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Apr;52(4):1274-82


Schnohr P, Parner J, Lange P. [Joggers live longer. The Osterbro study, Article in Danish] Ugeskr Laeger. 2001 May 7;163(19):2633-5


Boutcher SH. High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. J Obes. 2011;2011:868305


Ghosh AK. Anaerobic threshold: its concept and role in endurance sport. Malays J Med Sci. 2004 Jan;11(1):24-36


Mueller MJ, Maluf KS. Tissue adaptation to physical stress: a proposed "Physical Stress Theory" to guide physical therapist practice, education, and research. Phys Ther. 2002 Apr;82(4):383-403


Proske U, Morgan DL. Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. J Physiol. 2001 Dec 1;537(Pt 2):333-45


Egan B, Zierath JR. Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation. Cell Metab. 2013 Feb 5;17(2):162-84


Paton CD, Hopkins WG. Combining explosive and high-resistance training improves performance in competitive cyclists. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Nov;19(4):826-30


Todd JS, Shurley JP, Todd TC. Thomas L. DeLorme and the science of progressive resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Nov;26(11):2913-23


Glass SC, Stanton DR.  Self-selected resistance training intensity in novice weightlifters.  J Strength Cond Res. 2004 May;18(2):324-7


Krustrup P, Ferguson RA, Kjaer M, Bangsbo J. ATP and heat production in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise: higher efficiency of anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis. J Physiol. 2003 May 15;549(Pt 1):255-69


Buist I, Bredeweg SW, van Mechelen W, Lemmink KA, Pepping GJ, Diercks RL. No effect of a graded training program on the number of running-related injuries in novice runners: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2008 Jan;36(1):33-9


Rogind H, Bibow-Nielsen B, Jensen B, Moller HC, Frimodt-Moller H, Bliddal H.  The effects of a physical training program on patients with osteoarthritis of the knees. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Nov;79(11):1421-7


Vignon E, Valat JP, Rossignol M, Avouac B, Rozenberg S, Thoumie P, Avouac J, Nordin M, Hilliquin P. Osteoarthritis of the knee and hip and activity: a systematic international review and synthesis (OASIS). Joint Bone Spine. 2006 Jul;73(4):442-55


Delorme T, Watkins A: Techniques of progressive resistive exercise. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 29:263, 1948


Bellew JW, Yates JW, Gater DR. The initial effects of low-volume strength training on balance in untrained older men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Feb;17(1):121-8


Rhea MR. Determining the magnitude of treatment effects in strength training research through the use of the effect size. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Nov;18(4):918-20


Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, Dudley GA, Dooly C, Feigenbaum MS, Fleck SJ, Franklin B, Fry AC, Hoffman JR, Newton RU, Potteiger J, Stone MH, Ratamess NA, Triplett-McBride T; American College of Sports Medicine.  American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.  Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Feb;34(2):364-80


Campos GE, Luecke TJ, Wendeln HK, Toma K, Hagerman FC, Murray TF, Ragg KE, Ratamess NA, Kraemer WJ, Staron RS. Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002 Nov;88(1-2):50-60


McCaulley GO, McBride JM, Cormie P, Hudson MB, Nuzzo JL, Quindry JC, Travis Triplett N. Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses to hypertrophy, strength and power type resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009 Mar;105(5):695-704


Crewther B, Cronin J, Keogh J, Cook C. The salivary testosterone and cortisol response to three loading schemes. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Jan;22(1):250-5


Cannon J, Kay D, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE. Comparative effects of resistance training on peak isometric torque, muscle hypertrophy, voluntary activation and surface EMG between young and elderly women. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2007 Mar;27(2):91-100


Ahtiainen JP, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K. Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003 Aug;89(6):555-63


Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K, Newton RU, McCormick M, Nindl BC, Volek JS, Gotshalk LA, Fleck SJ, Campbell WW, Gordon SE, Farrell PA, Evans WJ. Acute hormonal responses to heavy resistance exercise in younger and older men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998 Feb;77(3):206-11


Knapik JJ, Rieger W, Palkoska F, Van Camp S, Darakjy S. United States Army physical readiness training: rationale and evaluation of the physical training doctrine. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jul;23(4):1353-62


Harman EA, Gutekunst DJ, Frykman PN, Nindl BC, Alemany JA, Mello RP, Sharp MA. Effects of two different eight-week training programs on military physical performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Mar;22(2):524-34


Wolfe BL, LeMura LM, Cole PJ. Quantitative analysis of single- vs. multiple-set programs in resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Feb;18(1):35-47


Kemmler WK, Lauber D, Engelke K, Weineck J. Effects of single- vs. multiple-set resistance training on maximum strength and body composition in trained postmenopausal women. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Nov;18(4):689-94


Drinkwater EJ, Lawton TW, Lindsell RP, Pyne DB, Hunt PH, McKenna MJ. Training leading to repetition failure enhances bench press strength gains in elite junior athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 May;19(2):382-8


Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Aug;39(8):1423-34


Holloszy JO, Coyle EF. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. J Appl Physiol. 1984 Apr;56(4):831-8


Coggan AR, Spina RJ, King DS, Rogers MA, Brown M, Nemeth PM, Holloszy JO. Skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance training in 60- to 70-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol. 1992 May;72(5):1780-6


Baggish AL, Wang F, Weiner RB, Elinoff JM, Tournoux F, Boland A, Picard MH, Hutter AM Jr, Wood MJ. Training-specific changes in cardiac structure and function: a prospective and longitudinal assessment of competitive athletes. J Appl Physiol. 2008 Apr;104(4):1121-8


McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Chapter 7, Energy transfer in exercise, in Exercise Physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance, 5 ed., Baltimore, Maryland: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, p. 162


Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK; American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Feb;41(2):459-71


Brouns F, van der Vusse GJ. Utilization of lipids during exercise in human subjects: metabolic and dietary constraints. Br J Nutr. 1998 Feb;79(2):117-28


Martin WH 3rd. Effects of acute and chronic exercise on fat metabolism. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1996;24:203-31


Westerterp KR, Meijer GA, Schoffelen P, Janssen EM. Body mass, body composition and sleeping metabolic rate before, during and after endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994;69(3):203-8


Kohrt WM, Obert KA, Holloszy JO. Exercise training improves fat distribution patterns in 60- to 70-year-old men and women. J Gerontol. 1992 Jul;47(4):M99-105


Carter SL, Rennie CD, Hamilton SJ, Tarnopolsky. Changes in skeletal muscle in males and females following endurance training. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 May;79(5):386-92


Sillanpää E, Häkkinen A, Nyman K, Mattila M, Cheng S, Karavirta L, Laaksonen DE, Huuhka N, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K. Body composition and fitness during strength and/or endurance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 May;40(5):950-8


Paoli A, Pacelli F, Bargossi AM, Marcolin G, Guzzinati S, Neri M, Bianco A, Palma A. Effects of three distinct protocols of fitness training on body composition, strength and blood lactate. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2010 Mar;50(1):43-51


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Pierson LM, Herbert WG, Norton HJ, Kiebzak GM, Griffith P, Fedor JM, Ramp WK, Cook JW. Effects of combined aerobic and resistance training versus aerobic training alone in cardiac rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2001 Mar-Apr;21(2):101-10


Dolezal BA, Potteiger JA. Concurrent resistance and endurance training influence basal metabolic rate in nondieting individuals. J Appl Physiol. 1998 Aug;85(2):695-700


Park SK, Park JH, Kwon YC, Kim HS, Yoon MS, Park HT. The effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on abdominal fat in obese middle-aged women. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2003 May;22(3):129-35


Bryner RW, Ullrich IH, Sauers J, Donley D, Hornsby G, Kolar M, Yeater R. Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Apr;18(2):115-21


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Stiegler P, Cunliffe A. The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight loss. Sports Med. 2006;36(3):239-62


Schuenke MD, Mikat RP, McBride JM. Effect of an acute period of resistance exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption: implications for body mass management. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002 Mar;86(5):411-7


West DW, Burd NA, Staples AW, Phillips SM. Human exercise-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy is an intrinsic process. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010 Sep;42(9):1371-5


Fahey TD, Rolph R, Moungmee P, Nagel J, Mortara S. Serum testosterone, body composition, and strength of young adults. Med Sci Sports. 1976 Spring;8(1):31-4


Kraemer WJ, Gordon SE, Fleck SJ, Marchitelli LJ, Mello R, Dziados JE, Friedl K, Harman E, Maresh C, Fry AC. Endogenous anabolic hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise in males and females. Int J Sports Med. 1991 Apr;12(2):228-35


Wheeler GD, Wall SR, Belcastro AN, Cumming DC. Reduced serum testosterone and prolactin levels in male distance runners. JAMA. 1984 Jul 27;252(4):514-6


Hackney AC. Effects of endurance exercise on the reproductive system of men: the "exercise-hypogonadal male condition". J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Oct;31(10):932-8


O'Keefe JH, Patil HR, Lavie CJ, Magalski A, Vogel RA, McCullough PA. Potential adverse cardiovascular effects from excessive endurance exercise. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Jun;87(6):587-95


Sayers SP, Gibson K, Cook CR. Effect of high-speed power training on muscle performance, function, and pain in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot investigation. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Jan;64(1):46-53


Jansson E, Kaijser L. Muscle adaptation to extreme endurance training in man. Acta Physiol Scand. 1977 Jul;100(3):315-24


Thorstensson A, Larsson L, Tesch P, Karlsson J. Muscle strength and fiber composition in athletes and sedentary men. Med Sci Sports. 1977 Spring;9(1):26-30


Kraemer WJ.  Endocrine responses and adaptations to resistance exercise.  Medicine Science Sports Exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988 Oct;20(5 Suppl):S152-7; Kraemer WJ, Marchitelli L, McCurry D, Mello R, Dziados JE, Harman E, Frykman P, Gordon SE, Fleck SJ.  Hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise.  Journal of Applied Physiology.  J Appl Physiol. 1990 Oct;69(4):1442-50


Buresh R, Berg K, French J. The effect of resistive exercise rest interval on hormonal response, strength, and hypertrophy with training. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):62-71


Westcott WL, Winett RA, Anderson ES, Wojcik JR, Loud RL, Cleggett E, Glover S. Effects of regular and slow speed resistance training on muscle strength. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001 Jun;41(2):154-8


Tanimoto M, Ishii N. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular function in young men. J Appl Physiol. 2006 Apr;100(4):1150-7


Tanimoto M, Kawano H, Gando Y, Sanada K, Yamamoto K, Ishii N, Tabata I, Miyachi M. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation increases basal limb blood flow. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2009 Apr;29(2):128-35


Watanabe Y, Tanimoto M, Ohgane A, Sanada K, Miyachi M, Ishii N. Low-intensity Resistance Exercise with Slow Movement and Tonic Force Generation Increases Muscle Size and Strength in Older Adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2012 Jul 24


Seger JY, Thorstensson A. Effects of eccentric versus concentric training on thigh muscle strength and EMG. Int J Sports Med. 2005 Jan-Feb;26(1):45-52


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PubMed, and research journals like the National Strength and Conditioning Association's Journal of Strength and Conditioning make great tools for lifelong learning about the ever-evolving science behind exercise and nutrition.

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